2001-09-00 - document - CPN-M२०५८-०५-०० - दस्तवेज - नेकपा-मा

Archive ref no: NCA-18700 अभिलेखालय सि. नं.: NCA-18700

Common Minimum Policy & Programme of United Revolutionary People’s Council

(Adopted by the First National Convention of the Revolutionary United Front consisting of the representatives of the C.P.N. ( Maoist ), the PLA, various class and mass organizations, local People’s Committees and prominent personalities in September 2001, which founded the United Revolutionary People’s Council, Nepal.)

  1. Basic Policies
  2. State System
  3. People’s Army and People’s Defence System
  4. Land and Agrarian Revolution
  5. Industry‚ Commerce‚ Finance and Infrastructure Development
  6. Culture and Education
  7. Health and Social Welfare
  8. Nationalities and Regional Question
  9. Women and Family
  10. Oppressed Castes (Dalits)
  11. Foreign Policy
This Common Minimum Policy and Programme of United Revolutionary People’s Council‚ Nepal has been formulated in order to guide the struggle to complete the New Democratic or People’s Democratic Revolution and to guide the state after the revolution. Attempts shall be made to implement them in areas where local state powers have been founded in course of the development of people’s revolution‚ whereas they will be raised as objects of propaganda and struggle in other areas and at the central level.


Basic Policies

1. The main objective of the People’s Council is to institutionalise the New Democratic/People’s Democratic Republic in the country. The fundamental character of New Democratic or People’s Democratic republican state shall be the people’s democratic dictatorship with the participation of all the progressive classes including the national bourgeoisie and oppressed nations/nationalities based on worker-peasant alliance under the leadership of the proletariat. It will end all forms of exploitation-oppression of feudalism, bureaucratic capitalism and imperialism/expansionism in the country and implement democracy for the people and dictatorship over the enemies of the people.

2. In Nepal, New Democratic/People’s Democratic state can be founded only through the protracted People’s War which marches forward building local base areas and in which guerrilla war plays a strategic role. Also, in the specific geo-historical position of Nepal and present world situation‚ it is essential to incorporate some parts of the strategy of armed insurrection right from the initiation of People’s War. So, applying this particular military strategy in order to carry the people’s revolution up to the apex of final victory, the People’s Council shall unite and mobilize all anti-feudal and anti-imperialist/anti-expansionist forces and the general masses.

3. The sovereignty shall be entirely vested in the people in New Democratic/ People’s Democratic system. To materialise this, an interim government consisting of all anti-feudal and anti-imperialist/ anti-expansionist forces shall be formed after smashing present reactionary state by means of People’s War, and a new constitution shall be drafted and implemented through the people’s representatives elected on the basis of universal suffrage under the interim government.

4. In the New Democratic/People’s Democratic system‚ the fundamental and political rights of all people including the rights to speak, write, publish, hold meetings & demonstrations and form organizations and political parties, elect and get elected, profess or not profess religions, settle in the place desired‚ etc. shall be guaranteed. Employment, education and health shall be considered as the fundamental rights of the people. Contrary to the propaganda of the reactionaries that there is one-party dictatorship of the communist party in New Democracy/People’s Democracy‚ full freedom will be guaranteed for various patriotic, democratic and leftist parties on the basis of mutual co-operation and supervision with the communist party for a long time. However, the people of reactionary classes who would play reactionary role during the people’s revolution and act against the cause of the country and the people shall be deprived of all political rights for a definite period. Along with the exercise of fundamental rights, all citizens shall have to abide by duties like defending the country, obeying the constitution and laws‚ protecting public properties, observing labour discipline, serving in the army, paying taxes etc.

5. There shall be no discrimination against anybody on the basis of race, ethnicity, religion, language, gender etc. and the state shall guarantee equal behaviour to and opportunities for all. Equal wages for equal work shall be guaranteed to all.

6. State shall be de-linked from religion and it shall be fully secular. Religion shall be regarded as a personal matter of the individual and there shall be no favour for or discrimination against any religion. However, cheating, fraud, corruption, exploitation-oppression, subversive activities etc., in the pretext of religion, shall be curbed.

7. All the semi-colonial and neo-colonial treaties and agreements including the Treaty of 1950 and debt burdens imposed by imperialism and expansionism upon the country shall be nullified and the country shall be made fully sovereign, independent and self-reliant. The Gorkha Recruiting Centre‚ which is there as a national shame‚ shall be closed down forthright and measures shall be taken to avail all the citizens of appropriate employment within the country. The plunder of national resources‚ including enormous water-resources‚ by imperialists and expansionists shall be stopped and the entire resources shall be utilised for the common cause of the people.

8. All the feudal, bureaucratic, and imperialist/expansionist relations prevailing in the field of economy shall be ended and national capitalist relations shall be developed. Instead of imposing socialist relations in the economy from the very beginning‚ socialism-oriented capitalist relations shall be developed. Therefore, a proper balance of private ownership, joint ownership and collective ownership shall be maintained in the New Democratic/People’s Democratic system. In other words, there shall be collective ownership of the state on large and basic industries and financial institutions, joint ownership of the state and individuals on certain large means of production, and private ownership of peasants in agriculture‚ which constitutes an overwhelming proportion of the economy, and of the entrepreneurs and traders on small and medium industries and commerce. Except through legal means, nobody’s private property shall be confiscated. In order to continue transforming the extremely backward condition of productive forces, the principle of "Grasp revolution and promote production" shall be made the basic guiding policy for economic development.

9. Democratic centralism shall be the fundamental principle of state organisation and attention shall always be paid to maintaining proper balance between democracy and centralism. A policy of "Politics in command" shall always be pursued in order to maintain proletarian leadership in every sector and to prevent bureaucratisation in the organs of the state, and a method of high application of the mass-line shall be followed. The state shall protect the rights of the masses for exercising democracy‚ like‚ to debate openly, express opinions freely, display big posters in public places‚ etc. The right of workers to strike shall also be guaranteed.


State System

10. The state shall be fully in the hands of the people. The House of People’s Representatives and People’s Committees/People’s Governments of various levels shall be the organs of the state of the people. The people on the basis of adult franchise shall elect the Houses of People’s Representatives at all levels. The Houses of People’s Representatives shall elect the People’s Committees/People’s Governments of the levels concerned. People’s Committees/People’s Governments shall act as organs of state of concerning levels when the House of People’s Representatives is not meeting.

11. There shall be four levels of the House of People’s Representatives and People’s Committees/People’s Governments‚ namely at the Centre (Union), Autonomous Regions‚ Districts, and Village/Town/Autonomous Town. But, keeping in view the specific situation of People’s War, they may be formed at the Area level above the Village and at Region/Sub-region levels above the District. As per the Wards below the Village level‚ there shall be only Ward People’s Committees and they will function under the Village House of People’s Representatives or Village People’s Committees. There shall be House of People’s Representatives and People’s Committees/People’s Governments of the appropriate levels in ethnic/nationalities autonomous areas.

12. Unlike the bourgeois parliament‚ which is merely a toothless debating club, the Houses of People’s Representatives shall be the most powerful organs equipped with legislative and executive rights. They shall make the people experience not only formal democracy but also genuine democracy since they shall have the representation of various classes, nationalities, regions, and also of patriotic and democratic eminent personalities. Delegates of the people shall be more responsible because the people will have the right to recall them if they do not function properly.

13. As the People’s Council is a mechanism of Revolutionary United Front of the people which enjoys the representation of workers, peasants, people’s army, petty bourgeoisie, national bourgeoisie‚ oppressed nations/nationalities, dalit (oppressed caste) community, women, expatriate Nepalese and various patriotic, democratic and leftist forces, its National Conference shall exercise, until a conducive situation materialises for the election of National House of People’s Representatives on the basis of adult franchise, the functions and the rights of the of National House of People’s Representatives, and it shall enact necessary constitution and laws‚ elect a Central People’s Government and grant it authority to run the state.

14. During the war period the Central People’s Government shall depute military and non-military delegates to organise local people’s governments in places where reactionary state apparatus would be destroyed but direct elections for houses of People’s Representatives at various levels would not be possible, and the delegates shall hold local conferences /conventions of all the forces and organise local people’s governments. Later on when a conducive situation will develop, elections for local Houses of People’s Representatives shall be held.

15. Houses of People’s Representatives and People’s Committees/People’s Governments of various levels shall function according to the principles of democratic centralism. Accordingly, Houses of People’s Representatives shall be responsible to the people and the People’s Governments to Houses of People’s Representatives. In the Houses of People’s Representatives and People’s Governments, the minority shall obey the decisions of the majority, the appointments of People’s Governments of various levels should be approved by the higher level, the People’s Governments of lower level should obey the decision of higher-level Governments and all local People’s Governments should obey the decisions of the Central People’s Government. In the case of autonomous organs‚ while implementing democratic centralism attempt shall be made to arrive at a consensus through wide democratic exercise.

16. The jurisdiction of the Central People’s Government and local People’s Government shall be defined in accordance with the nature and need of various works and the Central People’s Government shall issue necessary directives keeping in view the national unity and local utility.

17. All laws, orders and judicial systems of old reactionary state that exercise exploitation-oppression on the people shall be declared null and void. New laws and directives favourable to the cause of the people shall be issued and people’s democratic judicial system shall be founded.

18. People’s Courts at various levels shall be constituted in order to impart justice to the people. It’s office-bearers shall be appointed by House of People’s Representatives of the concerned levels and they shall be responsible to them.

19. The security organs of the concerned level shall exercise the functions and rights of the procuratorial organs that administer cases against the criminals. While conducting trial against a person, the mass line should be properly exercised and the masses should be involved in debates on major counter-revolutionary criminal cases.

20. All organs of the state should follow revolutionary working style of honesty, simplicity and service to the people and they should strongly oppose red tape, corruption and extravagance.

21. People’s supervisory organs shall be established to supervise the functions of office-bearers of the People’s Governments at various levels and to take disciplinary actions against them in case they violate the laws or do not discharge their duties properly. The people shall have the right to lodge complaints against such office-bearers or state organs in the people’s supervisory or judicial organs.


People’s Army and People’s Defence System

22. In order to completely smash the old reactionary state through the means of People’s War and defend the New Democratic/People’s Democratic state, there shall be a unified People’s Liberation Army‚ which will comprise of Main Force‚ Secondary/Local Force and People’s Militia. The Chairman of Central Committee of the Communist Party shall be the Supreme Commander of the People’s Liberation Army‚ which shall be mobilized through the Central People’s Government led by the Party. The Main Force shall be mobilized at the central level and Secondary/Local Force at the local level‚ whereas People’s Militia shall take care of local defence and order.

23. In the present era of imperialism, it will be necessary to organize the People’s Army also in a centralized way in order to fight against excessively centralized army of the reactionary state‚ but the policy of putting the People’s Army under the command of revolutionary politics‚ uniting it with the masses, and maintaining greater democratic relations between the officers and soldiers in the People’s Army shall be pursued in order to prevent the growth of professionalism as in the reactionary army. A policy of militarising the whole masses shall be pursued to check the threat of counter-revolution and, for this, people’s militia shall be expanded widely.

24. The principal task of the People’s Army is to continuously advance the People’s War before the completion of the revolution and defend the New Democratic/People’s Democratic state and motherland after the revolution‚ but at the time of leisure and peace it should also play the role of (political) organizer and (economic) producer among the masses.

25. During the whole period of revolution, the masses shall be specially inspired and encouraged to join the People’s Army and special priority shall be accorded to the task of looking-after of families and dependents of soldiers of People’s Army and martyrs and wounded and handicapped of the war. The People’s Government shall pay special attention to provide necessary resources for the People’s Army. Special encouragement shall be given to those who rebel from the reactionary army and police, and join the revolutionary camp.


Land and Agrarian Revolution

26. The agrarian revolution is the basic foundation of the New Democratic/ People’s Democratic Revolution. Therefore, the main policy of agrarian revolution shall be to abolish the feudal, semi-feudal and bureaucratic capitalist production relations in the land and develop national capitalist relations, of which "land to the tiller" shall be the main policy tenet. In other words, the lands owned by feudal, bureaucratic capitalists and various Guthis ( i.e. a type of feudal ownership by social and religious institutions), in the places where the old reactionary power structure have been smashed, shall be seized without any compensation and distributed to landless and poor peasants, and the tillers shall be made the owners of the land. In case of rich and medium level peasants, their lands shall not be seized but ceiling shall be imposed on them keeping in mind the ratio of availability of land and population. In the places where old state structure has not been totally smashed or people’s state power has not been founded as yet‚ only reformative measures shall be taken in the initial stage, according to which ceilings on lands shall be implemented, tenurial rights of tenants shall be guaranteed, the rate of land rent shall be reduced and made one-third‚ interest rate of credits shall be reduced, Guthi lands shall be turned into ‘raiker’‚ i.e. governmental lands etc.

27. Landless and poor peasants shall be relieved of all kinds of debts, and labour-service and other charges levied on them shall be abolished.

28. Medieval feudal practices like ‘kamaiya’‚ ‘harwa-charwa’ ( i.e. different forms of labour services against debts to the landlords) shall be completely abolished and re-settlement and employment shall be arranged for them.

29. Minimum wages for agricultural labourers shall be fixed and they will be strictly implemented. Women labourers shall be provided wages equivalent to men.

30. Agricultural credits shall be made available at cheap interest rates and with ease. Proper irrigation facilities shall be provided to all cultivable and irrigable lands. Rural infrastructure shall be developed by appropriate utilisation of reserve labour force existing in agriculture.

31. Fertilizer, seeds, pesticides, agricultural tools, etc. shall be made available to the peasants at cheap rates and with ease. Special attention shall be paid on the development of agricultural industries and proper arrangements shall be made for agricultural markets. Balance shall be maintained in the prices of industrial and agricultural products.

32. Co-operation shall be taken from local revolutionary peasants’ organizations and general masses of the peasants shall be mobilized, particularly in preparing actual records of ownership of the land, determining class status of the peasants (i.e. landless, poor, middle and rich peasants and feudal landlords) in the villages, determining the real tillers and executing effectively the land-reforms during the implementation of revolutionary land-reform policy and programmes. In addition, the land reform programmes shall be implemented phasewise in both class and regional terms, and during this process, full attention shall be paid to local particularities. While implementing revolutionary land reform programme in the autonomous areas of oppressed nationalities and regions‚ care shall be taken to stop historical incursions into them.

33. The lands seized from feudal and bureaucratic capitalist classes and acquired from the rich peasants above the ceiling during the implementation of land reforms and uncultivated public land shall be distributed among all peasants of the village keeping in view the land they already own, without any ethnic or gender discrimination and on equal basis, and that shall be their private property. In this context, the proportion of quality of the lands‚ i.e. irrigated and un-irrigated lands‚ shall be obviously taken care of.

34. The livestock, agricultural tools, houses, grains etc. seized from the feudal shall be distributed among the poor and other peasants who run short of them, and they shall be their private property.

35. Large forests, big irrigation projects, mines, grazing meadows, large uncultivated lands, rivers, lakes etc. shall be in possession of local People’s Governments as public properties. Similarly, places of historical and natural (scenic) importance, arts and artefacts etc. shall also be in the possession of the People’s Governments.

36. Family members of office-bearers of the People’s Army, People’s Governments and mass-organizations, who hail from the villages, shall be given land and property like other common peasants. In doing so, special priority shall be given to the families of the martyrs. Old landlords and their families, and office-bearers of the old state, who come from the villages, and their families, shall be given land and properties to labour and earn a living, like common peasants. Reactionary traitors and war criminals, however, shall not be given any land and property. Nevertheless, the members of their families who were not involved in any criminal activities and want to labour and live shall be given land and property like other common peasants.

37. The documents of land ownership, other transactions and credits enacted before the implementation of revolutionary land reform shall be declared null and void and the People’s Governments shall investigate and issue new documents to all concerned. The People’s Courts shall punish those who resist revolutionary land reforms and violate rules and laws.

38. Even though the ownership of land and other properties would be private in the stage of New Democratic/People’s Democratic Revolution, agricultural production shall be encouraged to be organized in various kinds of co-operatives, given the small average size of the cultivable lands and generally extremely low level of productive forces, particularly in hilly areas, so as to develop productivity, utilize the labour properly and accelerate the pace of economic development. A policy to develop production and distribution cooperatives from small to big and low level to high level shall be pursued systematically.

39. Taking into account the geographical diversity of the high Himalayas, the mid-hills and the Terai (or plains) and the possibility of their specializations in animal husbandry, herbal farming‚ horticulture, forest products and grain production a policy to make an integrated‚ balanced and inter-dependent development of those diverse regions and agricultural sectors shall be pursued. Special emphasis shall be placed on attaining self-reliance in food-grains during the whole period of war and even in future.


Industry‚ Commerce‚ Finance and Infrastructure Development

40. Without rapid national industrialization, it is not possible to radically transform the present economy of Nepal viciously trapped in acute poverty, unemployment, under-unemployment, underdevelopment and dependency, and to fulfil the advanced physical and cultural needs of the society. Therefore, in New Democratic / People’s Democratic system, the industry shall be regarded as the leading sector of economy and planned attempts shall be made for its rapid development. For that, the path for rapid industrialization in the country shall be paved by nationalizing the capital being misused in the hands of the comprador and bureaucratic bourgeoisie in the country, liberating the labour trapped in the agricultural sector and promoting internal markets‚ on the one hand, and by liberating national industries from the grip of imperialism and particularly Indian monopoly capital‚ on the other. Also, the industrialization process shall be boosted by providing protection and encouragement to the capital of the large number of small and domestic entrepreneurs and the national bourgeoisie, who are in small numbers in the country.

41. During the whole period of war, special emphasis shall be given on developing industries that supply essential war logistics‚ supply consumer and other goods (such as cloth, shoes, equipment, paper etc.) to the base areas and that are based on local raw materials and skills. Taking into consideration the probable imperialist and expansionist economic sanctions during and after the war‚ the import-substitution industries shall be given special encouragement.

42. As there would be shortage of capital and excess of labour in the country for a long time, labour-intensive industrialization shall be mainly stressed. Special attention shall be paid on development and use of local technology. Particularly, special emphasis shall be given on supplying the most essential industrial energy by utilizing the immense water resources through small hydroelectric projects and guaranteeing the self-reliant, pollution-free and sustainable development. The economic sectoral and geographic regional inequality and the process of extraverted development prevailing at present shall be ended and planned attempts shall be made for balanced development between agriculture and industries, small industries and large industries, cottage industries and modern industries, rural and urban areas, and the hills and the plains.

43. For the workers, weekly 40-hour working days and minimum wages shall be fixed and strictly implemented. Participation of the workers in the management of industries shall be guaranteed. Policy of encouraging co-operative system in cottage and small industries shall be followed.

44. Trade in basic goods and foreign trade shall be under the control of the state; whereas trade in other sectors shall be in the hands of the private sector. Stranglehold of Indian monopoly capitalists in the commerce sector shall be ended and the state shall offer protection to the national traders. Commercial relations shall be maintained with all on the basis of mutual benefit and equality.

45. Consumer co-operatives shall be encouraged so as to avail the people of consumer goods at cheaper prices and with ease. The state shall make necessary interventions in order to keep the prices of commodities stable and well managed. Appropriate customs policy shall be pursued to provide support to the indigenous goods. Special measures shall be taken to avail of consumer goods at cheap prices in remote areas.

46. The exploitation and oppression of imperialist financial capital in the country shall be ended‚the country shall be freed of foreign debts and there will be state control over major financial institutions in the country. In the rural areas financial co-operatives shall be developed to make credits easily available. Private financial institutions shall be given permission to operate within rules and laws. But the interest rate shall be controlled.

47. Public expenditures shall be made under a well-planned budgetary system. Tax policy shall be applied in keeping with the needs of the war and economic re-construction.

48. Imperialist financial penetration and internal sabotage on the pretext of NGO / INGOS shall be ended.

49. Considering the inaccessibility and complexities of most of the hilly regions, transport and communication system shall be developed in a planned manner. Special attention shall be given on building infrastructures like roads, bridges, etc in the rural areas,. The unsystematic expansion of the cities shall be controlled and a policy of planned urbanization shall be pursued. Attention shall be paid on developing planned settlement in the new liberated zones.

50. Instead of large and dependent hydroelectric projects, emphasis shall be given on constructing small and medium, and multi-purpose and self-reliant projects. Attention shall be paid on developing the tourism sector in such a manner that it serves the cause of the country and the people.


Culture and Education

51. The basic character of New Democratic/People’s Democratic culture and education shall be national, democratic and scientific. In the field of culture and education, the main task of the People’s Government shall be to promote cultural standard of the people, produce red and expert manpower for social and national re-construction, and develop progressive and scientific outlook that serves the people, in place of the feudal, comprador and anti-people ones. New Democratic/People’s Democratic culture and education shall generate a sense of patriotism‚ respect for the masses, belief in science, respect for labour and responsibility towards public properties.

52. Education shall be made universal‚ free & compulsory. Special literacy campaign shall be conducted and all types of illiteracy, including adult illiteracy, shall be eliminated. Education shall be connected with labour and made useful to life. Education shall be imparted maintaining balance between natural science and social science. Special stress shall be given to poly-technique education. Necessary attention shall be paid to higher education and science-technology education. Proper arrangements for sports and entertainment to all shall be made.

53. Old textbooks shall be cancelled and textbooks in line with new scientific values shall be prepared. Provision for education in mother tongues up to a specific level shall be made.

54. Special attention shall be given to the preservation and promotion of literature and art. Literature and art that serve the masses, promote the political consciousness of the masses, and increase respect for labour‚ shall be promoted. People-oriented plays and cinemas shall be encouraged. Excellence in literature and art shall be rewarded. Vulgar and obscene literature and films shall be prohibited.

55. Freedom of expression of the people shall be protected. Newspapers and journals that publish objective news and views shall be encouraged. People’s radio and broadcasting shall be promoted. Special attention shall be paid to the publication of socially useful and popular books and journals.

56. Proper attention shall be paid to the preservation of old cultural heritages. Special attention shall be given to the preservation of languages and cultures of the oppressed nations/nationalities.


Health and Social Welfare

57. Free and universal health services shall be made available to all. Special attention shall be paid to the extension of health services in the rural areas. Traditional systems like witch doctor etc. shall be abolished and modern and scientific medical system shall be implemented. Special stress shall be laid on producing lower and medium-level health activists. Use of medicines based on indigenous herbs shall be encouraged instead of importing many of the harmful medicines distributed by the imperialists.

58. Rights of disabled persons, the elderly, destitute and children shall be protected and special attention shall be given to their care.

59. Minimum housing facility shall be guaranteed to all. Proper arrangements shall be made for settlement of the squatters.


Nationalities and Regional Question

60. The state shall guarantee equal treatment to all nations/nationalities and languages of the country. All nations/nationalities traditionally oppressed by the ruling Aryan-Khas nationality shall exercise the right to self-determination‚ but their problems shall be resolved within the framework of national autonomy program in the New Democratic/People’s Democratic system. According to which‚ all forms of exploitation/oppression of the oppressed nations /nationalities shall be ended and they shall exercise their own autonomous rule in the land they inhabit. If the nationalities are scattered in more than one area, there shall be more than one autonomous area. The House of People’s Representatives and People’s Committees/Governments elected by the oppressed nationalities themselves shall be the means of their state power. Except for the People’s Army, foreign relations, finance, currency, measurements, communication, international trade, large basic industries and large hydroelectric projects, all other sectors shall fall under the jurisdiction of the autonomy. They shall exercise the autonomy within the framework of the approved rules and laws.

61. In case of areas of mixed nationalities, or if there are other nationalities in the autonomous area of a particular nationality, there shall be representation of all in the local state powers on a proportional basis.

62. All the oppressed nations/nationalities shall have the right to join the People’s Army and they may form People’s Militia under the central command as a security force at the local level.

63. All the oppressed nations/nationalities shall enjoy the freedom to promote their languages, to preserve or reform their traditional values and systems. The Central People’s Government shall assist the people of oppressed nations and nationalities in their political, economic, cultural and educational development.

64. In the high Himalayan regions, Karnali region and Seti-Mahakali region‚which have been regionally oppressed because of unequal economic development‚ there shall be regional autonomy. The nature of the regional autonomy shall be basically same as national autonomy.

65. The issue of Terai‚which is inhabited by people of various linguistic groups, is an issues of both national and regional oppression. However, since it is primarily an issue of national oppression, there shall be separate national autonomous regions for the nations / nationalities speaking different languages (e.g., Maithili, Bhojpuri, Awadhi etc.), and all the oppression and unequal treatment meted out to Teraian and‚ particularly, Madheshee people shall be ended. The prolonged issue of citizenship of the Madheshee people shall be resolved in a scientific, just and democratic manner.


Women and Family

66. All forms of patriarchal exploitation of women shall be ended and women shall be given all rights equal to men. Like son, daughter shall enjoy equal rights to parental property. Women shall be provided with special rights for participating in all organs of the state. All kinds of prostitution shall be prohibited and ‘Badi’, ‘Jhuma’ traditions shall be totally eradicated. Traffickers on women and rapists shall be sternly punished. Nepalese women sold to brothels inside the country and abroad, mainly India, shall be freed and honourably rehabilitated.

67. Marriage between a man and a woman shall take place only on the basis of mutual love and free volition but not under any coercion or through tradition. There should be strict monogamy in the marriage. Polygamy shall be prohibited. Minimum age of man and woman for marriage shall be 22 and 20 years respectively. If both man and woman willing to get married apply to the concerned officer of the local People’s Government‚ they shall be issued certificate of marriage after necessary investigation. Family planning and maintaining a small family shall be the responsibility of the couples. Women’s right to abortion shall be protected. Widow re-marriage shall be encouraged. Special arrangements shall be made for child-care.

68. If both husband and wife desire and request for, divorce may be granted. If only one party demands for it‚ the People’s Government shall reserve the right to whether or not to allow for the divorce, after necessary investigation. Taking into accounts the traditional oppression of women, a more sympathetic consideration should be given to women in such disputes. After the divorce, common property shall be divided on equal basis‚ but as far as the taking care of children is concerned, the father shall bear two-third and the mother one-third responsibility.


Oppressed Castes ( Dalits)

66. All forms of prevailing exploitation/oppression of the Dalits (depressed castes ) as per the Hindu varna system shall be ended and the Dalits shall be completely equal to other citizens. Untouchability shall be totally abolished and those practicing any kind of untouchability with the Dalits shall be severely punished.

67. Since the Dalits are oppressed on a caste basis for long, and are generally weak and backward economically‚ socially, culturally and otherwise, the state shall make provision for special rights to them until they turn practically equal to others‚ and this shall be governed by rules.


Foreign Policy

68. Diplomatic relations shall be established with all the countries of the world on the basis of five principles of peaceful coexistence (Panchsheel), i.e. mutual respect to each other’s sovereignty and national integrity, policy of non-interference in the internal affairs of one another, equality, mutual benefits and peaceful co-existence‚ and attempts shall be made to promote friendly relations.

69. Principal basis of foreign relations of the Democratic Republic of Nepal shall be the preservation of the country’s independence and national integrity, defence of New Democratic / People’s Democratic system, promotion of people’s interests and well-being‚ opposition to imperialism and expansionism, and support to national liberation movements in different countries and New Democratic or Socialist movements worldwide.

70. New Democratic / People’s Democratic Government shall review all agreements concluded by the old state with various countries and institutions, and the treaties and agreements that run counter to the causes of the country and the people shall be cancelled ‚whereas the ones that favour shall be renewed.

71. As Indian expansionism is the principal external enemy and threat to Nepal and all countries of South Asia, particularly close relations shall be developed with various communist revolutionary groups and national liberation movements which have been fighting against Indian expansionism‚ and attempts shall be made to build South Asian Soviet Federation after revolution is completed in all the countries of this region

72. The causes of the Nepalese living abroad, particularly in India, shall be protected. Such Nepalese compelled to leave the country and go abroad due to poverty and unemployment shall be provided employment and properly settled. Special attention shall be paid on checking increasing brain drain and utilizing their talent and skill within the country. Foreign nationals obeying the laws in Nepal shall be given protection. Any citizen of any country of the world who is forced to leave the country due to his / her involvement in revolutionary activities shall be offered political asylum.